Treaty with the Wyandots, Shawnees, Senecas, and Ottawas (1818)
On September 29, 1817, Lewis Cass and Duncan McArthur, commissioners from the United States government, and representatives from the Wyandot, the Shawnee, the Seneca, and the Lenape began negotiations to determine the location of American Indian land in Ohio -- after the forced removal of these peoples from their ancestral lands. After almost one year of discussions, the parties signed the Treaty with the Wyandots, Shawnee, Senecas, and Ottawa on September 17, 1818. This treaty described the land holdings of these American Indians in Ohio and also provided the natives with yearly annuities. Over the next two decades, the United States government and Ohio's American Indian nations negotiated numerous additional treaties. By the early 1840s, due to an increasingly aggressive U.S. government strategy of American Indian relocation and removal, Ohio's Native Americans had relinquished or been made to relinquish control of most of their Ohio land to the United States government.
- Hurt, R. Douglas. The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720-1830. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996.
- Vogel, John J. Indians of Ohio and Wyandot County. New York, NY: Vantage Press, 1975.