From Ohio History Central
Text replacement - "Ohio Historical Society" to "Ohio History Connection"
<p>Charles Smith, who later changed his name to Gerard Fowke, made the first systematic study of Flint Ridge in the 1880s. He published the results of his survey in the 1884 annual report of the Smithsonian Institution and in his 1902 book entitled <em>Archaeological History of Ohio</em>.</p>
<p>William C. Mills, former Curator of Archaeology for the Ohio
Historical Society, did the most important study of Flint Ridge around 1920. He surveyed and excavated many quarry pits and workshop sites. Mills learned that the Hopewell culture was responsible for the bulk of the flint quarrying at Flint Ridge. They dug the flint from the pits and chipped it at nearby workshops into two basic forms: leaf-shaped bifaces (a biface is a flint flake or slab worked on both the front and back); and, small, cone-shaped cores for making long, thin bladelets.</p>
<p>In the summers of 1987 and 1988, Richard Yerkes, a professor of anthropology at Ohio State University, dug several test pits and systematically collected artifacts from the surface at Flint Ridge State Memorial. The goals of Yerkes' study were to test Mills' ideas about how the Hopewell culture used Flint Ridge, and to see if he could find evidence of Hopewell villages at the ridge. Yerkes found no evidence that Hopewell people ever lived at Flint Ridge, but he did conclude that Mills was right about Hopewell flint working.</p>
<p>In the fall of 1997, Ohio
Historical Society archaeologists Bradley Lepper and William Pickard excavated a large area at Flint Ridge that was to become the site of a picnic shelter. They excavated more than 1400 cubic feet of earth and recovered nearly a ton of flint tools and discarded chips. This work also confirmed Mills' conclusions. Most of the tools found were bifaces, cores, and bladelets made by the Hopewell culture.</p>