From Ohio History Central
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<p>The Hopewell communities are also defined by their intricate trading system. Routes connected societies all throughout the Eastern region, linking distant areas such as the Great Lakes to Florida so that tribes were able to obtain and utilize exotic goods not residing within their settlements. The system was arranged so that those peoples residing at the important nodes of the trading channel would receive a variety of resources from all connecting regions then they either shipped those exotic goods to different areas or developed finished products such as tools to transport too using local dispatching systems. Hopewell art was considered some of the finest created during that era because they had access to a variety of resources and were not limited by regional assets. With varying capital to utilize the Hopewell culture allowed the sustainment of an artisan class that could specialize in developing differentiating arts and tools. Much of the art that was produced depicted a multitude of animals (dear, bear, and birds were the most popular) and in many cases animalistic effigies were used to depict the guardian spirit of a shaman. The Hopewell culture coincided with the introduction to shapes such as bowls and jars so imprints of figures were also placed on pottery. In the communities residing in Ohio copper, mica, and obsidian were three dominant exotic goods that those tribes desired.</p>
<p> Architecture is the prominent representation of the Hopewell culture. Earthworks and burial mounds which were used for a multitude of ceremonies such as religious practices and funerals were discovered intact throughout the Midwestern region; these mounds provide insight to this relatively unknown lifestyle. There was a variety of earthworks created that ranged from geometric complexes, hilltop enclosures, and conical mounds which could be found around fertile rivers or stream valleys. Many of them, considered to be used for burial purposes, were impregnated with a varied amount of exotic goods which demonstrated a possible hierarchical system within the community. The most prominent example of Hopewell burial mounds can be found in Chillicothe, Ohio at the Mound City Group. Ohio is considered to be the epicenter for the most impressive Hopewell earthworks.</p>
<p>Around 400 A.D Hopewell culture began to decline for an unknown reason. The prediction is that there was a cultural collapse within the communities as the succeeding settlements showed signs of a lifestyle switch to larger, permanent, more isolated societies. Also, the introduction of the bow and arrow made for a shift in hunting, gathering, and war which may have forced Hopewell societies to become more secluded for survival. Mounds reduced in prominence and the trading routes diminished but the legacy of the Hopewell people can still be viewed today.</p> <br />
*[[Copper Frog Effigy]]
*[[Face of a Hopewell Person]]
*[[Hopewell Spear Points]]
*[[Late Woodland Cultures]]
*[[Mound City Group]]
*[[Seip Mound and Earthworks]]
*[[Tremper Mound and Earthworks]]
Animal Effigy Pipes]]*[[ Woodland Pottery]]*[[ zzEffigy Pipe]]
Earthworks Virtual Explorations of Ancient Newark, Ohio</em> . The Center for the Electronic Reconstruction of Historical and Archaeological Sites. Cincinnati, OH: Center for the Electronic Reconstruction of Historical and Archaeological Sites, 2005.
#Byers, A. Martin. <em>The Ohio Hopewell Episode: Paradigm Lost and Paradigm Gained</em>. Akron, OH: University of Akron Press, 2004.
#Carr, Christopher, and D. Troy Case, eds. <em>Gathering Hopewell: Society, Ritual, and Ritual Interaction</em>. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 2005.
#Dancey, William S., and Paul J. Pacheco. <em>Ohio Hopewell Community Organization</em>. Kent State University Press, 1997.
Lepper, Bradley T. <em> Ohio Archaeology: An Illustrated Chronicle of Ohio's Ancient American Indian Cultures.</em> Wilmington, Ohio, Orange Frazer Press, 2005. #Woodward, Susan L., and Jerry N. McDonald. <em>Indian Mounds of the Middle Ohio Valley: A Guide to Mounds and Earthworks of the Adena, Hopewell, Cole, and Fort Ancient People</em>. Lincoln: The University of Nebraska Press, 2002.
[[Category:Prehistory Groups]][[Category:Prehistory]][[Category:American Indians]]