==Prehistoric Period: 13000 BC-1650 AD== *13000 BC-7000 BC: [[Paleoindian Period]] - Ohio's first human inhabitants *8000 BC-500 BC: Ohio's [[Archaic Period]] - Most native people lived as hunters and gatherers. *800 BC-1200 AD: Ohio's [[Woodland Period]] - The region's native populace increasingly relied on agriculture to sustain themselves. *800 BC-100 AD: The [[Adena Culture]] thrived in Ohio. *100 BC-400 AD: The [[Hopewell Culture]] built large mound complexes in Ohio, including the Newark Earthworks. *1000 AD-1650 AD: Ohio's [[Fort Ancient Culture]] flourished. *1000 AD-1650 AD: Ohio's [[Late Prehistoric Period]]. ==Exploration to Statehood: 1650-1803== *1492: Christopher Columbus rediscovered the Americas for Europeans, beginning the Colonial Period in the New World. *1607: The Virginia Company established Jamestown, the first British community to survive in North America. *1670: [[Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle]], a French explorer and the first European in the Ohio Country, discovered the Ohio River. *1748: The [[Ohio Company]] formed in Virginia to settle the Ohio River Valley. *1754-1763: [[French and Indian War]] **France ceded all rights to the [[Treaty of Paris of 1763]]. *1768: [[Treaty of Fort Stanwix]] - [[Iroquois]] ceded all lands south and east of the [[Ohio River]] to the British. *1774: [[Lord Dunmore's War]] *1775-1783: The [[American Revolution]] **1775: Hostilities began with battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachussetts. **1776: [[Declaration of Independence]]. American colonies declared their independence from England. **1781: Final major battle fought at Yorktown, Virginia *1782: [[Gnadenhutten Massacre]]. Pennsylvania militia killed Christian Indians near Tuscarawas River. *1782: Colonel [[William Crawford]] burned at the stake in retaliation for the [[Gnadenhutten Massacre]]. *1783: [[Treaty of Paris]] officially ended the [[American Revolution]]. England recognized American independence and ceded all lands in the [[Ohio Country]]. *1785: [[Land Ordinance of 1785]] established methods for surveying and dividing land in the [[Ohio Country]]. *1786: [[Ohio Company of Associates]] formed in Massachusetts to sell land in what is now southeast Ohio. *1787: [[Confederation Congress]] appointed [[Arthur St. Clair]] as first governor of the Northwest Territory. *1787: [[United States Constitution]] drafted. *1787: Congress enacted the [[Northwest Ordinance]], establishing the [[Northwest Territory]], which included modern-day [[Ohio]]. *1788: [[Marietta]], the [[Northwest Territory's]] and Ohio's first permanent white settlement, founded. *1790-1794: [[Ohio Indian Wars]] **1790 - [[Harmar's Defeat]] **1791 - [[St. Clair's Defeat]] **1794 - [[Battle of Fallen Timbers]] *1795: [[Treaty of Greeneville]] signed, essentially ending the [[Ohio Indian Wars]]. *1800: [[Chillicothe]] became the capitol of the [[Northwest Territory]]. *1802: [[Enabling Act]] set the stage for Congress to admit [[Ohio]] to the Union. *1802: [[Constitutional Convention]] met at [[Chillicothe]] to draft [[Ohio's first constitution]]. *1802: [[Thomas Worthington]] presented Ohio constitution to Congress for approval. ==Early Statehood: 1803-1846== *1803: [[President Jefferson]] signed legislation making [[Ohio]] the seventeenth state of the Union. *1804: [[Ohio General Assembly]] chartered [[Ohio University]]. *1812: City of [[Columbus]] founded and named as new state capitol. *1812-1814: The [[War of 1812]] **1813: British failure at both [[Sieges of Fort Meigs]] prevented them from driving their forces deeper into [[Ohio]]. *1813: Under the command of [[Oliver Hazard Perry]], the American fleet defeated the British fleet at the [[Battle of Lake Erie]], cutting off British supply lines and forcing them to abandon [[Fort Detroit]]. *1815: [[Ohio University]] held first commencement. *1816: State government relocated to [[Columbus]]. *1825: Work on the [[National Road]] and the [[canal system]] in [[Ohio]] began. *1833: [[Oberlin College]], the first coeducational college in the United States founded. *1833: The [[Ohio and Erie Canal]] completed. *1835: Boundary dispute between Michigan and [[Ohio]] led to the [[Toledo War]]. *1840: Ohioan [[William Henry Harrison]] elected the 9th President of the United States. *1842: [[Treaty with the Wyandots (1842)]]. The [[Wyandots]], Ohio's last Indian tribe, agreed to relinquish all claims to land within the state. *1845: The [[Miami and Erie Canal]] completed. *1846-1848: [[Mexican War]] *1850: The first [[Ohio State Fair]] held in [[Cincinnati]]. *1850: [[Ohio's second Constitutional Convention]] held in [[Chillicothe]]. *1851: The [[Ohio Constitution of 1851]] adopted. *1852: Publication of ''[[Uncle Tom's Cabin]]'', written by in Ohio by [[Harriet Beecher Stowe]], increased tensions between the North and the South.==[[American Civil War]]: 1860-1865== *1860: [[Abraham Lincoln]] elected president. *1861: The [[Ohio Statehouse]] completed. *1862: [[President Lincoln]] issued the [[Emancipation Proclamation]]. *1863: Following a six-week siege, Confederate forces surrendered [[Vicksburg]] to Federal troops led by Ohioan [[Ulysses S. Grant]]. *1863: [[Morgan's Raid.]] Confederate Brigadier General [[John Hunt Morgan]] led troops on a daring raid across southern Ohio. *1863: [[Battle of Buffington Island]],the only [[Civil War]] battle fought on Ohio soil. *1864: [[President Lincoln]] promoted [[Ulysses S. Grant]] to supreme commander of all Union forces. *1864: Union forces under the leadership of Ohioan [[William T. Sherman]] captured Atlanta. *1864: Sherman led his troops on his "[[March to the Sea]]" from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia. *1864-1865: [[Ulysses S. Grant]] led the [[Army of the Potomac]] in pursuit of Robert E. Lee's forces during the [[Wilderness Campaign]]. *1865: Robert E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to [[Ulysses S. Grant]] at Appomattox Court House, Virginia. *1865: John Wilkes Booth [[assassinated President Lincoln]] at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. ==Industrialization and Urbanization: 1866-1900==*1868: Ohioan [[Ulysses S. Grant]] elected to his first of two terms as the 18th President of the United States. *1869: The [[Cincinnati Redstockings]], the first professional baseball team, founded. *1870: Originally known as the [[Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College]], [[The Ohio State University]] chartered by the [[Ohio General Assembly]]. *1876: Ohioan [[Rutherford B. Hayes]] elected the 19th President of the United States. *1876: The [[Ashtabula Train Disaster]] resulted in 83 deaths. *1879: Ohioan [[Thomas Edison]] invented the electric light bulb. *1880: Ohioan [[James A. Garfield]] elected the 20th President of the United States. *1881: Charles Guiteau shot [[President Garfield]], who died three months later, in Washington, D.C. *1884: [[Cincinnati Courthouse Riot]] brought destruction and death to Cincinnati. *1888: Ohioan [[Benjamin Harrison]] elected the 23rd President of the United States. *1894: The first gasoline-powered [[automobile]] in the U.S. invented. *1896: Ohioan [[William McKinley]] elected to his first of two terms as the 25th President of the United States. ==The Progressive Era: 1901-1928==*1901: Leon Czolgosz assassinated [[President McKinley]] in Buffalo, New York. *1902: The [[Ohio General Assembly]] officially adopted [[Ohio's state flag]]. *1903: Ohioans [[Orville]] and [[Wilbur]] Wright complete the first successful flight of a powered airplane.*1908: Ohioan [[William H. Taft]] elected the 27th President of the United States.*1908: The [[Collinwood School Fire]], near Cleveland, killed 173 pupils, two teachers, and one firefighter.*1913: The [[Flood of 1913]] caused the death of at least 428 Ohioans and brought destruction across the state.*1914-1918: [[World War I]] **1917: [[Camp Sherman]], near [[Chillicothe]], contructed to train [[World War I]] army troops. **1918: Aproximately 1,200 troops died at [[Camp Sherman]] during the [[Influenza Epidemic of 1918]]. *1920: Ohioan [[Warren G. Harding]] elected the 29th President of the United States.*1925: The dirigible ''[[Shenandoah ]]''[[crashed]] near Ava, Ohio, killing 14 people. ==The [[Great Depression]] and [[World War II]]: 1929-1945==*1929-1941: The [[Great Depression]]*1930: The [[Ohio Penitentiary Fire]] killed 322 inmates.*1935: [[Ohio's first sales tax]] instituted.*1937: The [[Ohio River Flood of 1937]] brought devastation to southern Ohio.*1944: The [[East Ohio Gas Company Explosion]] in Cleveland killed 131 people.*1941-1945: The [[World War II]] entangled the United States and Ohio.*1949: The [[General Assembly]] created the Ohio Department of Natural Resources. ==The [[Cold War]] and the [[Civil Rights Movement]]: 1946-1975==*1950-1953: The [[Korean War]]*1953: Correcting an oversight, Congress passed a resolution officially recognizing [[Ohio statehood]] and declaring Ohio's date of entry into the Union as March 1, 1803.*1955: The [[Ohio Turnpike]] completed.*1958: Completion of the [[St. Lawrence Seaway]] connected Ohio cities on [[Lake Erie]] to international trade opportunities. *1959: The [[General Assembly]] created the [[Ohio Civil Rights Commission]].*1962: Ohioan [[John Glenn]] became the first American to orbit the earth.*1963: [[William O. Walker]] became Ohio's first African-American cabinet member.*1963: The [[Professional Football Hall of Fame]] opened in [[Canton]].*1964-1974: [[Vietnam War]]*1967: [[Carl Stokes]] became the first [[African-American]] mayor of a major city ([[Cleveland]]).*1969: Ohioan [[Neil Armstrong]] became the first person to walk on the moon.*1970: [[Kent State Riot]] - Four students killed by [[Ohio National Guard]] during anti-war protests.*1972: The [[General Assembly]] enacted the [[Ohio Income Tax]].*1973: Ohio voters approved the [[Ohio Lottery]].*1974: The deadly [[Xenia Tornado]] killed 33 people. ==Modern Ohio==*1978: The [[Blizzard of 1978]], the worst winter storm in Ohio's history. *1979: Public schools in [[Columbus]], [[Dayton]] and [[Cleveland]] began [[busing]] pupils to eliminate segregation.*1986: Astronaut [[Judith Resnik]], of [[Akron]], died in the ''Challenger'' space shuttle explosion. *1991: In their ruling in ''[[DeRolph v. State of Ohio]]'', the [[Ohio Supreme Court]] declared Ohio's school funding program unconstitutional. *1993: The [[Lucasville Prison Riot]] resulted in the deaths of nine prisoners and one guard. *1995: The [[Rock and Roll Hall of Fame]] opened in [[Cleveland]]. *1995: International negotiations at [[Wright-Patterson Air Force Base]] near [[Dayton]] led to the Bosnian Peace Agreement.*1998: Astronaut [[John Glenn]] became the oldest man to travel into space.*2001: Terrorist attacks on [[September 11]] in New York City, NY and Washington, D.C., led to a flurry of anti-terrorist activities in [[Ohio]] and throughout the nation.*2006: Ohio voters passed a [[statewide smoking ban]] in public places.