Ohio Naval Militia
The Ohio Naval Militia had its roots in the Ohio Militia, which was formed in 1803. At that time, every state within the United States had its own militia. The militia existed to protect a state's residents from attack, whether it was from Indians, other countries, or internal revolts. Most states required able-bodied white men to participate in the militia. Age limits existed in all states, with most states requiring men between the ages of eighteen and forty-five to participate in the militia.
The Ohio Militia played an important role in the state's early history. Militiamen helped United States soldiers subdue Ohio's Indian people. During the War of 1812, the Ohio Militia helped defend the American Northwest from British invasion. Following this conflict, the Ohio Militia still existed, but it declined in importance. With the death of the Shawnee leader Tecumseh at the Battle of the Thames in 1813, most Ohioans no longer faced major threats from the Indians. The United States also remained at peace with other nations until the Mexican War began in 1846. During this prolonged era of peace, Ohio's state government reduced funding to the militia to set aside money for other programs.
With the outbreak of the American Civil War in April 1861, Ohio Governor William Dennison dispatched George McClellan and Jacob Cox to the state arsenal in Columbus to investigate the guns and other supplies that Ohio had on hand to help equip the state's militia units. The two men discovered a few crates of rusted smoothbore muskets, mildewed harnesses for horses, and some six-pound cannons that could not be fired. Despite the lack of equipment, Dennison encouraged Ohio communities to revive the militia system and form units that they would send to Columbus, the state capital. Dennison entrusted McClellan with command of these units, asking him to create a cohesive and professional force out of the volunteers. Most of these units formed the basis of Ohio Volunteer Infantry units, which the State of Ohio eventually provided to the United States government for the war against the South.
Following the Civil War, the Ohio Militia remained in existence, but it again experienced a decline. In 1903, the United States government implemented the Dick Act, which formally created the National Guard. One of the principal reasons for this new law was the poor condition of state militia organizations. Most state militia units now became National Guard units. Before creation of the National Guard, state militia units, in theory, only existed to protect their states.
States still oversaw the new National Guard units, which were primarily to serve in their own states. However, the federal government could now nationalize National Guard units and send them into other states or even other countries without the approval of the units' home states. Today, both Army National Guard and Air National Guard units exist in Ohio, and many Ohioans belong to these organizations. Members of the National Guard receive pay and other benefits, including financial assistance to attend college. A desire to serve and, the various financial benefits cause many Americans to enlist in National Guard units.
Despite the existence of the National Guard, Ohio still maintained its own militia force. The Dick Act prohibited states from retaining their own militia systems. Ohio was one of the states that chose not to follow the federal mandate and maintain such a force. A principal reason for the continuation of the Ohio Militia was the desire to protect Lake Erie. There was no Naval National Guard. With Ohio having a water boundary with Canada, Ohio leaders felt the need to maintain a naval component to its militia force. On March 1, 1896, the Ohio legislature established the Naval Brigade of the National Guard of Ohio. Initially, this organization consisted of two brigades, with one located in Cleveland and the other one located in Toledo. Members of these brigades served in the Spanish-American War, during which they became known as the Ohio Naval Militia. The Ohio Naval Militia remained active in the state's defense until the end of World War II, when the State of Ohio deactivated the organization. In 1974, former Lieutenant Governor John W. Brown sought to reestablish the Ohio Naval Militia. This formally occurred on November 1, 1977. The unit's operation and training center is located at Camp Perry, near Port Clinton, Ohio. The Ohio Naval Militia is a volunteer organization, and its members are unarmed. In 2006, Ohio was one of only five states with a naval force.
- American Civil War
- Battle of the Thames
- Mexican War
- Spanish-American War
- War of 1812
- World War I
- Cleveland, Ohio
- Columbus, Ohio
- Lake Erie
- Toledo, Ohio
- State of Ohio
- World War II
- Port Clinton, Ohio
- Ohio Militia
- Ohio Volunteer Infantry
- Ohio Legislature
- Camp Perry
- George B. McClellan
- William Dennison Jr.
- Jacob D. Cox
- Ohio National Guard
- John W. Brown
- [Ohio National Guard]
- Dee, Christine, ed. Ohio's War: The Civil War in Documents. Athens: Ohio University Press, 2007.
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- Lindley, Harlow. Ohio in the Twentieth Century: 1900-1938. Columbus: Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, 1942.
- Official Roster of the Soldiers of the State of Ohio in the War of Rebellion, 1861-1866. Akron, OH: The Werner Company, 1893.
- Reid, Whitelaw. Ohio in the War: Her Statesmen, Generals and Soldiers. Cincinnati, OH: Clarke, 1895.
- Roseboom, Eugene H. The Civil War Era: 1850-1873. Columbus: Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, 1944.
- Weisenburger, Francis P. The Passing of the Frontier: 1825-1850. Columbus: Ohio State Archaeological and Historical Society, 1941.