During the American Revolution, Captain Henry Bird led a combined force of British and Shawnee troops against white settlements in Kentucky. In 1779, Colonel John Bowman and a band of three hundred Kentuckians attacked American Indian groups living near modern-day Xenia, Ohio. In retaliation, the following year, Bird and his troops began an invasion into Kentucky. The British troops and their American Indian allies were optimistic about their potential success, as they brought with them two small field pieces that they felt would easily destroy the settlements' fortifications. In the raid's early days, Bird and his men vanquished two of the settlements, but soon the expedition began to unravel. The Shawnee eventually chose to return north of the Ohio River rather than setting up a long siege as the British had intended. The success of Bird's attack alarmed the Kentuckians. They later organized a raid of one thousand men, under the leadership of George Rogers Clark, to go on the offensive against the Shawnee. Clark and his men destroyed several Shawnee villages and caused great loss of American Indian life at the Battle of Piqua in 1782.
- Hurt, R. Douglas. The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720-1830. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996.
- Waller, George Macgregor. The American Revolution in the West. Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall, 1976.