What is now Chillicothe in Ross County, Ohio, was once home to the Adena and Hopewell prehistoric Native American cultures. This map shows the most densely concentrated area of ancient earthworks in North America. The Adena culture (800 B.C. to 100 A.D.) built most of the earthworks and some of the circular enclosures in the Chillicothe area, including the Adena Mound. The Hopewell culture (100 B.C. to 400 A.D.) built monumental earthworks and burial mounds in geometric shapes, primarily in the Paint Creek Valley, a few miles from Chillicothe. Archaeologists E.G. Squier and E.H. Davis, with the help of surveyor and geologist Charles Whittlesey, systematically documented the Native American works and compiled them into an 1847 book called "Ancient monuments of the Mississippi Valley: Comprising the results of extensive original surveys and explorations."
OHS Archives/Library 917.303 Sq43a
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