Difference between revisions of "Timeline of Ohio History"

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==Prehistoric Period: 13000 BC-1650 AD== *13000 BC-7000 BC: [[Paleoindian Period]] - Ohio's first human inhabitants *8000 BC-500 BC: Ohio's [[Archaic Period]] - Most native people lived as hunters and gatherers. *800 BC-1200 AD: Ohio's [[Woodland Period]] - The region's native populace increasingly relied on agriculture to sustain themselves. *800 BC-100 AD: The [[Adena Culture]] thrived in Ohio. *100 BC-400 AD: The [[Hopewell Culture]] built large mound complexes in Ohio, including the Newark Earthworks. *1000 AD-1650 AD: Ohio's [[Fort Ancient Culture]] flourished. *1000 AD-1650 AD: Ohio's [[Late Prehistoric Period]].       ==Exploration to Statehood: 1650-1803== *1492: Christopher Columbus rediscovered the Americas for Europeans, beginning the Colonial Period in the New World. *1607: The Virginia Company established Jamestown, the first British community to survive in North America. *1670: [[Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle]], a French explorer and the first European in the Ohio Country, discovered the Ohio River. *1748: The [[Ohio Company]]  formed in Virginia to settle the Ohio River Valley. *1754-1763: [[French and Indian War]] **France ceded all  rights to the [[Treaty of Paris of 1763]]. *1768: [[Treaty of Fort Stanwix]] - [[Iroquois]] ceded all lands south and east of the [[Ohio River]] to the British. *1774: [[Lord Dunmore's War]] *1775-1783: The [[American Revolution]] **1775: Hostilities  began with battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachussetts. **1776: [[Declaration of Independence]]. American  colonies declared their independence from England. **1781: Final major  battle fought at Yorktown, Virginia *1782: [[Gnadenhutten Massacre]].  Pennsylvania militia killed Christian  Indians near Tuscarawas River. *1782: Colonel [[William Crawford]] burned at the stake in retaliation for the [[Gnadenhutten Massacre]]. *1783: [[Treaty of Paris]] officially ended the [[American Revolution]]. England recognized American independence and ceded all lands in the [[Ohio Country]]. *1785: [[Land Ordinance of 1785]] established methods for surveying and dividing land in the [[Ohio Country]]. *1786: [[Ohio Company of Associates]] formed in Massachusetts to sell land in what is now southeast Ohio. *1787: [[Confederation Congress]] appointed [[Arthur St. Clair]] as first governor of the Northwest Territory. *1787: [[United States Constitution]]  drafted. *1787:  Congress enacted the [[Northwest Ordinance]], establishing the [[Northwest Territory]], which included modern-day [[Ohio]]. *1788: [[Marietta]], the [[Northwest Territory's]] and Ohio's first permanent white settlement, founded. *1790-1794: [[Ohio Indian Wars]] **1790 - [[Harmar's  Defeat]] **1791 - [[St.  Clair's Defeat]] **1794 - [[Battle of  Fallen Timbers]] *1795: [[Treaty of Greeneville]]  signed, essentially ending the [[Ohio Indian Wars]]. *1800: [[Chillicothe]] became the capitol of the [[Northwest Territory]]. *1802: [[Enabling Act]] set the stage for Congress to admit [[Ohio]] to the Union. *1802: [[Constitutional Convention]] met at [[Chillicothe]] to draft [[Ohio's first constitution]]. *1802: [[Thomas Worthington]] presented  Ohio constitution to Congress for approval.       ==Early Statehood: 1803-1846== *1803: [[President Jefferson]] signed legislation making [[Ohio]] the seventeenth state of the Union. *1804:  [[Ohio General Assembly]] chartered [[Ohio University]]. *1812: City of [[Columbus]] founded and named as new state capitol. *1812-1814: The [[War of 1812]] **1813: British  failure at both [[Sieges of Fort Meigs]] prevented them from driving their  forces deeper into [[Ohio]]. *1813: Under the command of [[Oliver Hazard Perry]], the American fleet defeated the British fleet at the [[Battle of Lake Erie]], cutting off British supply lines and forcing them to abandon [[Fort Detroit]]. *1815: [[Ohio University]] held first commencement. *1816: State government relocated to [[Columbus]]. *1825: Work on the [[National Road]] and the [[canal system]] in [[Ohio]] began. *1833: [[Oberlin College]], the first  coeducational college in the United States  founded. *1833: The [[Ohio and Erie Canal]]  completed. *1835: Boundary dispute between Michigan and [[Ohio]] led to the [[Toledo War]]. *1840: Ohioan [[William Henry Harrison]]  elected the 9th President of the United States. *1842: [[Treaty with the Wyandots (1842)]]. The [[Wyandots]], Ohio's last Indian tribe, agreed to relinquish all claims to land within the state. *1845: The [[Miami and Erie Canal]]  completed. *1846-1848: [[Mexican War]] *1850: The first [[Ohio State Fair]]  held in [[Cincinnati]]. *1850: [[Ohio's second Constitutional Convention]]  held in [[Chillicothe]]. *1851: The [[Ohio Constitution of 1851]]  adopted. *1852: Publication of ''[[Uncle Tom's Cabin]]'', written by in Ohio by [[Harriet Beecher Stowe]], increased tensions between the North and the South.==[[American Civil War]]: 1860-1865== *1860: [[Abraham Lincoln]]  elected president. *1861: The [[Ohio Statehouse]]  completed. *1862: [[President Lincoln]] issued the [[Emancipation Proclamation]]. *1863: Following a six-week siege, Confederate forces surrendered [[Vicksburg]] to Federal troops led by Ohioan [[Ulysses S. Grant]]. *1863: [[Morgan's Raid.]] Confederate Brigadier General [[John Hunt Morgan]] led troops on a daring raid across southern Ohio. *1863: [[Battle of Buffington Island]],the only [[Civil War]] battle fought on Ohio soil. *1864: [[President Lincoln]] promoted [[Ulysses S. Grant]] to supreme commander of all Union forces. *1864: Union forces under the leadership of Ohioan [[William T. Sherman]] captured Atlanta. *1864: Sherman led his troops on his "[[March to the Sea]]" from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia. *1864-1865: [[Ulysses S. Grant]] led the [[Army of the Potomac]] in pursuit of Robert E. Lee's forces during the [[Wilderness Campaign]]. *1865: Robert E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to [[Ulysses S. Grant]] at Appomattox Court House, Virginia. *1865: John Wilkes Booth [[assassinated President Lincoln]] at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C.     ==Industrialization and Urbanization: 1866-1900==*1868: Ohioan [[Ulysses S. Grant]]  elected to his first of two terms as the 18th President of the United States. *1869: The [[Cincinnati Redstockings]], the first professional baseball team,  founded. *1870: Originally known as the [[Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College]], [[The Ohio State University]]  chartered by the [[Ohio General Assembly]]. *1876: Ohioan [[Rutherford B. Hayes]]  elected the 19th President of the United States. *1876: The [[Ashtabula Train Disaster]] resulted in 83 deaths. *1879: Ohioan [[Thomas Edison]] invented the electric light bulb. *1880: Ohioan [[James A. Garfield]]  elected the 20th President of the United States. *1881: Charles Guiteau shot [[President Garfield]], who died three months later, in Washington, D.C. *1884: [[Cincinnati Courthouse Riot]] brought destruction and death to Cincinnati. *1888: Ohioan [[Benjamin Harrison]]  elected the 23rd President of the United States. *1894: The first gasoline-powered [[automobile]] in the U.S.  invented. *1896: Ohioan [[William McKinley]]  elected to his first of two terms as the 25th President of the United States.     ==The Progressive Era: 1901-1928==*1901: Leon Czolgosz assassinated [[President McKinley]] in Buffalo, New York. *1902: The [[Ohio General Assembly]] officially adopted [[Ohio's state flag]]. *1903: Ohioans [[Orville]] and [[Wilbur]] Wright complete the first successful flight of a powered airplane.*1908: Ohioan [[William H. Taft]]  elected the 27th President of the United States.*1908: The [[Collinwood School Fire]], near Cleveland, killed 173 pupils, two teachers, and one firefighter.*1913: The [[Flood of 1913]] caused the death of at least 428 Ohioans and brought destruction across the state.*1914-1918: [[World War I]] **1917: [[Camp  Sherman]], near [[Chillicothe]],  contructed to train [[World War I]] army troops. **1918: Aproximately 1,200  troops died at [[Camp  Sherman]] during the [[Influenza Epidemic of 1918]]. *1920: Ohioan [[Warren G. Harding]]  elected the 29th President of the United States.*1925: The dirigible ''[[Shenandoah ]]''[[crashed]] near Ava, Ohio, killing 14 people.    ==The [[Great Depression]] and [[World War II]]: 1929-1945==*1929-1941: The [[Great      Depression]]*1930: The [[Ohio Penitentiary Fire]] killed 322 inmates.*1935: [[Ohio's first sales tax]]  instituted.*1937: The [[Ohio River Flood of 1937]] brought devastation to southern Ohio.*1944: The [[East Ohio Gas Company Explosion]] in Cleveland  killed 131 people.*1941-1945: The [[World War II]] entangled the United States and Ohio.*1949: The [[General Assembly]] created the Ohio Department of Natural Resources.    ==The [[Cold War]] and the [[Civil Rights Movement]]: 1946-1975==*1950-1953: The [[Korean War]]*1953: Correcting an oversight, Congress passed a resolution officially recognizing [[Ohio statehood]] and declaring Ohio's date of entry into the Union as March 1, 1803.*1955: The [[Ohio Turnpike]]  completed.*1958: Completion of the [[St. Lawrence Seaway]] connected Ohio cities on [[Lake Erie]] to international trade opportunities. *1959: The [[General Assembly]] created the [[Ohio Civil Rights Commission]].*1962: Ohioan [[John Glenn]] became the first American to orbit the earth.*1963: [[William O. Walker]] became Ohio's first African-American cabinet member.*1963: The [[Professional Football Hall of Fame]] opened in [[Canton]].*1964-1974: [[Vietnam War]]*1967: [[Carl Stokes]] became the first [[African-American]] mayor of a major city ([[Cleveland]]).*1969: Ohioan [[Neil Armstrong]] became the first person to walk on the moon.*1970: [[Kent State Riot]] - Four students  killed by [[Ohio National Guard]] during anti-war protests.*1972: The [[General Assembly]] enacted the [[Ohio Income Tax]].*1973: Ohio voters approved the [[Ohio Lottery]].*1974: The deadly [[Xenia Tornado]] killed 33 people.    ==Modern Ohio==*1978: The [[Blizzard of 1978]], the worst winter storm in Ohio's history. *1979: Public schools in [[Columbus]], [[Dayton]] and [[Cleveland]] began [[busing]] pupils to eliminate segregation.*1986: Astronaut [[Judith Resnik]], of [[Akron]], died in the ''Challenger'' space shuttle explosion. *1991: In their ruling in ''[[DeRolph v. State of Ohio]]'', the [[Ohio Supreme Court]] declared Ohio's school funding program unconstitutional. *1993: The [[Lucasville Prison Riot]] resulted in the deaths of nine prisoners and one guard. *1995: The [[Rock and Roll Hall of Fame]] opened in [[Cleveland]]. *1995: International negotiations at [[Wright-Patterson Air Force Base]] near [[Dayton]] led to the Bosnian Peace Agreement.*1998: Astronaut [[John Glenn]] became the oldest man to travel into space.*2001: Terrorist attacks on [[September 11]] in New York City, NY and Washington, D.C., led to a flurry of anti-terrorist activities in [[Ohio]] and throughout the nation.*2006: Ohio voters passed a [[statewide smoking ban]] in public places.
+
==Prehistoric Period: 13000 BC-1650 AD==
 +
 
 +
*13000 BC-7000 BC: [[Paleoindian Period]] - Ohio's first human inhabitants
 +
 
 +
*8000 BC-500 BC: Ohio's [[Archaic Period]] - Most native people lived as hunters and gatherers.
 +
 
 +
*800 BC-1200 AD: Ohio's [[Woodland Period]] - The region's native populace increasingly relied on agriculture to sustain themselves.
 +
 
 +
*800 BC-100 AD: The [[Adena Culture]] thrived in Ohio.
 +
 
 +
*100 BC-400 AD: The [[Hopewell Culture]] built large mound complexes in Ohio, including the Newark Earthworks.
 +
 
 +
*1000 AD-1650 AD: Ohio's [[Fort Ancient Culture]] flourished.
 +
 
 +
*1000 AD-1650 AD: Ohio's [[Late Prehistoric Period]].      
 +
 
 +
 
 +
 
 +
==Exploration to Statehood: 1650-1803==
 +
 
 +
*1492: Christopher Columbus rediscovered the Americas for Europeans, beginning the Colonial Period in the New World.
 +
 
 +
*1607: The Virginia Company established Jamestown, the first British community to survive in North America.
 +
 
 +
*1670: [[Rene Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle]], a French explorer and the first European in the Ohio Country, discovered the Ohio River.
 +
 
 +
*1748: The [[Ohio Company]]  formed in Virginia to settle the Ohio River Valley.
 +
 
 +
*1754-1763: [[French and Indian War]]
 +
 
 +
**France ceded all rights to the [[Treaty of Paris of 1763]].
 +
 
 +
*1768: [[Treaty of Fort Stanwix]] - [[Iroquois]] ceded all lands south and east of the [[Ohio River]] to the British.
 +
 
 +
*1774: [[Lord Dunmore's War]]
 +
 
 +
*1775-1783: The [[American Revolution]]
 +
 
 +
**1775: Hostilities began with battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachussetts.
 +
 
 +
**1776: [[Declaration of Independence]]. Thirteen colonies declared their independence from England and form United States of America.
 +
 
 +
**1781: Final major battle fought at Yorktown, Virginia
 +
 
 +
*1782: [[Gnadenhutten Massacre]].  Pennsylvania militia killed Christian Native Americans near Tuscarawas River.
 +
 
 +
*1782: Colonel [[William Crawford]] burned at the stake in retaliation for the [[Gnadenhutten Massacre]].
 +
 
 +
*1783: [[Treaty of Paris]] officially ended the [[American Revolution]]. England recognized American independence and ceded all lands in the [[Ohio Country]].
 +
 
 +
*1785: [[Land Ordinance of 1785]] established methods for surveying and dividing land in the [[Ohio Country]].
 +
 
 +
*1786: [[Ohio Company of Associates]] formed in Massachusetts to sell land in what is now southeast Ohio.
 +
 
 +
*1787: [[Confederation Congress]] appointed [[St. Clair, Arthur | Arthur St. Clair]] as first governor of the Northwest Territory.
 +
 
 +
*1787: [[United States Constitution]]  drafted.
 +
 
 +
*1787:  Congress enacted the [[Northwest Ordinance]], establishing the [[Northwest Territory]], which included modern-day [[Ohio]].
 +
 
 +
*1788: [[Marietta, Ohio | Marietta]], the [[Northwest Territory | Northwest Territory's]] and Ohio's first permanent white settlement, founded.
 +
 
 +
*1790-1794: [[Ohio Indian Wars]]
 +
 
 +
**1790 - [[Harmar's  Defeat]]
 +
 
 +
**1791 - [[St. Clair's Defeat]]
 +
 
 +
**1794 - [[Battle of  Fallen Timbers]]
 +
 
 +
*1795: [[Treaty of Greenville (1795) | Treaty of Greenville]]  signed, essentially ending the [[Ohio Indian Wars]].
 +
 
 +
*1800: [[Chillicothe]] became the capitol of the [[Northwest Territory]].
 +
 
 +
*1802: [[Enabling Act of 1802 | Enabling Act]] set the stage for Congress to admit [[Ohio]] to the Union.
 +
 
 +
*1802: [[Ohio Constitutional Convention of 1802 | Constitutional Convention]] met at [[Chillicothe]] to draft [[Ohio Constitution of 1803 | Ohio's first constitution]].
 +
 
 +
*1802: [[Worthington, Thomas | Thomas Worthington]] presented Ohio constitution to Congress for approval.
 +
 
 +
==Early Statehood: 1803-1846==
 +
 
 +
 +
 
 +
*1803: [[Jefferson, Thomas | President Jefferson]] signed legislation making [[Ohio]] the seventeenth state of the Union.
 +
 
 +
*1804:  [[Ohio General Assembly]] chartered [[Ohio University]].
 +
 
 +
*1812: City of [[Columbus, Ohio | Columbus]] founded and named as new state capitol.
 +
 
 +
*1812-1814: The [[War of 1812]]
 +
 
 +
**1813: British  failure at both [[Sieges of Fort Meigs]] prevented them from driving their  forces deeper into [[Ohio]].
 +
 
 +
*1813: Under the command of [[Perry, Oliver H. | Oliver Hazard Perry]], the American fleet defeated the British fleet at the [[Battle of Lake Erie]], cutting off British supply lines and forcing them to abandon [[Fort Detroit]].
 +
 
 +
*1815: [[Ohio University]] held first commencement.
 +
 
 +
*1816: State government relocated to [[Columbus]].
 +
 
 +
*1825: Work on the [[National Road]] and the canal system in [[Ohio]] began.
 +
 
 +
*1833: [[Oberlin College]], the first  coeducational college in the United States  founded.
 +
 
 +
*1833: The [[Ohio and Erie Canal]]  completed.
 +
 
 +
*1835: Boundary dispute between Michigan and [[Ohio]] led to the [[Toledo War]].
 +
 
 +
*1840: Ohioan [[Harrison, William H. | William Henry Harrison]]  elected the 9th President of the United States.
 +
 
 +
*1842: [[Treaty with the Wyandots (1842) (Upper Sandusky) | Treaty with the Wyandots (1842)]]. The [[Wyandot Indians]], Ohio's last Native American tribe, agreed to relinquish all claims to land within the state.
 +
 
 +
*1845: The [[Miami and Erie Canal]]  completed.
 +
 
 +
*1846-1848: [[Mexican War]]
 +
 
 +
*1850: The first [[Ohio State Fair]]  held in [[Cincinnati]].
 +
 
 +
*1850: [[Ohio Constitutional Convention of 1850-1851 | Ohio's second Constitutional Convention]]  held in [[Chillicothe]].
 +
 
 +
*1851: The [[Ohio Constitution of 1851]]  adopted.
 +
 
 +
*1852: Publication of ''[[Uncle Tom's Cabin]]'', written by in Ohio by [[Stowe, Harriet B. | Harriet Beecher Stowe]], increased tensions between the North and the South.
 +
 
 +
==[[American Civil War]]: 1860-1865==
 +
 
 +
*1860: [[Lincoln, Abraham | Abraham Lincoln]]  elected president.
 +
 
 +
*1861: The [[Ohio Statehouse]]  completed.
 +
 
 +
*1862: [[Lincoln, Abraham | President Lincoln]] issued the [[Emancipation Proclamation]].
 +
 
 +
*1863: Following a six-week siege, Confederate forces surrendered [[Siege of Vicksburg | Vicksburg]] to Federal troops led by Ohioan [[Ulysses S. Grant]].
 +
 
 +
*1863: [[Morgan's Raid]]. Confederate Brigadier General [[Morgan, John H. | John Hunt Morgan]] led troops on a daring raid across southern Ohio.
 +
 
 +
*1863: [[Battle of Buffington Island]],the only [[American Civil War | Civil War]] battle fought on Ohio soil.
 +
 
 +
*1864: [[Lincoln, Abraham | President Lincoln]] promoted [[Ulysses S. Grant]] to supreme commander of all Union forces.
 +
 
 +
*1864: Union forces under the leadership of Ohioan [[Sherman, William T. | William T. Sherman]] captured Atlanta.
 +
 
 +
*1864: Sherman led his troops on his "[[Sherman's March to the Sea | March to the Sea]]" from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia.
 +
 
 +
*1864-1865: [[Ulysses S. Grant]] led the [[Army of the Potomac]] in pursuit of Robert E. Lee's forces during the [[Wilderness Campaign]].
 +
 
 +
*1865: Robert E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to [[Ulysses S. Grant]] at Appomattox Court House, Virginia.
 +
 
 +
*1865: John Wilkes Booth [[Abraham Lincoln's Assassination | assassinated President Lincoln]] at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C.
 +
 
 +
==Industrialization and Urbanization: 1866-1900==
 +
 
 +
*1868: Ohioan [[Ulysses S. Grant]]  elected to his first of two terms as the 18th President of the United States.
 +
 
 +
*1869: The [[Cincinnati Red Stockings]], the first professional baseball team,  founded.
 +
 
 +
*1870: Originally known as the [[Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College]], [[The Ohio State University]]  chartered by the [[Ohio General Assembly]].
 +
 
 +
*1876: Ohioan [[Hayes, Rutherford B. | Rutherford B. Hayes]]  elected the 19th President of the United States.
 +
 
 +
*1876: The [[Ashtabula Train Disaster of 1876 | Ashtabula Train Disaster]] resulted in 83 deaths.
 +
 
 +
*1879: Ohioan [[Edison, Thomas A. | Thomas Edison]] invented the electric light bulb.
 +
 
 +
*1880: Ohioan [[Garfield, James A. | James A. Garfield]]  elected the 20th President of the United States.
 +
 
 +
*1881: Charles Guiteau shot [[Garfield, James A. | President Garfield]], who died three months later, in Washington, D.C.
 +
 
 +
*1884: [[Cincinnati Courthouse Riot]] brought destruction and death to Cincinnati.
 +
 
 +
*1888: Ohioan [[Harrison, Benjamin | Benjamin Harrison]]  elected the 23rd President of the United States.
 +
 
 +
*1894: The first gasoline-powered [[Automobiles | automobile]] in the U.S.  invented.
 +
 
 +
*1896: Ohioan [[McKinley Jr., William | William McKinley]]  elected to his first of two terms as the 25th President of the United States.
 +
 
 +
==The Progressive Era: 1901-1928==
 +
 
 +
*1901: Leon Czolgosz assassinated [[McKinley Jr., William | President McKinley]] in Buffalo, New York.
 +
 
 +
*1902: The [[Ohio General Assembly]] officially adopted [[Ohio's State Flag (1901) | Ohio's state flag]].
 +
 
 +
*1903: Ohioans [[Wright, Orville | Orville]] and [[Wright, Wilbur | Wilbur]] Wright complete the first successful flight of a powered airplane.
 +
 
 +
*1908: Ohioan [[Taft, William H. | William H. Taft]]  elected the 27th President of the United States.
 +
 
 +
*1908: The [[Collinwood School Fire]], near Cleveland, killed 173 pupils, two teachers, and one firefighter.
 +
 
 +
*1913: The [[1913 Ohio Statewide Flood | Flood of 1913]] caused the death of at least 428 Ohioans and brought destruction across the state.
 +
 
 +
*1914-1918: [[World War I]]
 +
 
 +
**1917: [[Camp  Sherman]], near [[Chillicothe]],  contructed to train [[World War I]] army troops.
 +
 
 +
**1918: Aproximately 1,200  troops died at [[Camp  Sherman]] during the [[Influenza Epidemic of 1918]].
 +
 
 +
*1920: Ohioan [[Harding, Warren G. | Warren G. Harding]]  elected the 29th President of the United States.
 +
 
 +
*1925: The dirigible ''[[USS Shenandoah | Shenandoah ]]''[[Crash of the USS Shenandoah | crashed]] near Ava, Ohio, killing 14 people.
 +
 
 +
==The [[Great Depression]] and [[World War II]]: 1929-1945==
 +
 
 +
*1929-1941: The [[Great Depression]]
 +
 
 +
*1930: The [[Ohio Penitentiary Fire]] killed 322 inmates.
 +
 
 +
*1935: [[Ohio Retail Sales Tax Law of 1935 | Ohio's first sales tax]]  instituted.
 +
 
 +
*1937: The [[Ohio River Flood of 1937]] brought devastation to southern Ohio.
 +
 
 +
*1944: The [[East Ohio Gas Company Explosion]] in Cleveland  killed 131 people.
 +
 
 +
*1941-1945: The [[World War II]] entangled the United States and Ohio.
 +
 
 +
*1949: The [[Ohio General Assembly]] created the Ohio Department of Natural Resources.
 +
 
 +
==The [[Cold War]] and the [[Civil Rights Movement]]: 1946-1975==
 +
 
 +
*1950-1953: The [[Korean War]]
 +
 
 +
*1953: Correcting an oversight, Congress passed a resolution officially recognizing [[Ohio Statehood]] and declaring Ohio's date of entry into the Union as March 1, 1803.
 +
 
 +
*1955: The [[Ohio Turnpike Commission | Ohio Turnpike]]  completed.
 +
 
 +
*1958: Completion of the [[Great Lakes St. Lawrence Seaway System | St. Lawrence Seaway]] connected Ohio cities on [[Lake Erie]] to international trade opportunities.
 +
 
 +
*1959: The [[Ohio General Assembly]] created the [[Ohio Civil Rights Commission]].
 +
 
 +
*1962: Ohioan [[Glenn Jr., John H. | John Glenn]] became the first person from the United States to orbit the earth.
 +
 
 +
*1963: [[Walker, William O. | William O. Walker]] became Ohio's first African-American cabinet member.
 +
 
 +
*1963: The [[Pro Football Hall of Fame]] opened in [[Canton, Ohio]].
 +
 
 +
*1964-1974: [[Vietnam War]]
 +
 
 +
*1967: [[Stokes, Carl B. | Carl Stokes]] became the first [[African Americans | African-American]] mayor of a major city ([[Cleveland, Ohio | Cleveland]]).
 +
 
 +
*1969: Ohioan [[Armstrong, Neil A. | Neil Armstrong]] became the first person to walk on the moon.
 +
 
 +
*1970: [[Kent State Shootings]] - Four students were killed by the [[Ohio National Guard]] during anti-war protests.
 +
 
 +
*1972: The [[Ohio General Assembly]] enacted the [[Ohio Income Tax]].
 +
 
 +
*1973: Ohio voters approved the [[Ohio Lottery]].
 +
 
 +
*1974: The deadly [[Xenia Tornado of 1974 | Xenia Tornado]] killed 33 people.
 +
 
 +
==Modern Ohio==
 +
 
 +
*1978: The [[1978 Ohio Statewide Blizzard | Blizzard of 1978]], the worst winter storm in Ohio's history.
 +
 
 +
*1979: Public schools in [[Columbus]], [[Dayton]] and [[Cleveland, Ohio | Cleveland]] began [[busing]] pupils to eliminate segregation.
 +
 
 +
*1986: Astronaut [[Resnik, Judith | Judith Resnik]], of [[Akron, Ohio | Akron]], died in the ''Challenger'' space shuttle explosion.
 +
 
 +
*1991: In their ruling in ''[[DeRolph v. State of Ohio]]'', the [[Ohio Supreme Court]] declared Ohio's school funding program unconstitutional.
 +
 
 +
*1993: The [[Lucasville Prison Riot]] resulted in the deaths of nine prisoners and one guard.
 +
 
 +
*1995: The [[Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Museum]] opened in [[Cleveland, Ohio | Cleveland]].
 +
 
 +
*1995: International negotiations at [[Wright-Patterson Air Force Base]] near [[Dayton]] led to the Bosnian Peace Agreement.
 +
 
 +
*1998: Astronaut [[Glenn Jr., John H. | John Glenn]] became the oldest man to travel into space.
 +
 
 +
*2001: Terrorist attacks on [[11-Sep-01 | September 11]] in New York City, NY and Washington, D.C., led to a flurry of anti-terrorist activities in [[Ohio]] and throughout the nation.
 +
 
 +
*2006: Ohio voters passed [[Ohio's Statewide Smoking Ban]] in public places.

Latest revision as of 12:53, 20 July 2017

Prehistoric Period: 13000 BC-1650 AD

  • 8000 BC-500 BC: Ohio's Archaic Period - Most native people lived as hunters and gatherers.
  • 800 BC-1200 AD: Ohio's Woodland Period - The region's native populace increasingly relied on agriculture to sustain themselves.
  • 100 BC-400 AD: The Hopewell Culture built large mound complexes in Ohio, including the Newark Earthworks.


Exploration to Statehood: 1650-1803

  • 1492: Christopher Columbus rediscovered the Americas for Europeans, beginning the Colonial Period in the New World.
  • 1607: The Virginia Company established Jamestown, the first British community to survive in North America.
  • 1748: The Ohio Company formed in Virginia to settle the Ohio River Valley.
    • 1775: Hostilities began with battles of Lexington and Concord in Massachussetts.
    • 1781: Final major battle fought at Yorktown, Virginia
  • 1782: Gnadenhutten Massacre. Pennsylvania militia killed Christian Native Americans near Tuscarawas River.

Early Statehood: 1803-1846

  • 1812: City of Columbus founded and named as new state capitol.
  • 1816: State government relocated to Columbus.
  • 1833: Oberlin College, the first coeducational college in the United States founded.
  • 1835: Boundary dispute between Michigan and Ohio led to the Toledo War.

American Civil War: 1860-1865

  • 1864: Sherman led his troops on his " March to the Sea" from Atlanta to Savannah, Georgia.
  • 1865: Robert E. Lee surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to Ulysses S. Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia.

Industrialization and Urbanization: 1866-1900

  • 1868: Ohioan Ulysses S. Grant elected to his first of two terms as the 18th President of the United States.
  • 1881: Charles Guiteau shot President Garfield, who died three months later, in Washington, D.C.
  • 1894: The first gasoline-powered automobile in the U.S. invented.
  • 1896: Ohioan William McKinley elected to his first of two terms as the 25th President of the United States.

The Progressive Era: 1901-1928

  • 1903: Ohioans Orville and Wilbur Wright complete the first successful flight of a powered airplane.
  • 1913: The Flood of 1913 caused the death of at least 428 Ohioans and brought destruction across the state.

The Great Depression and World War II: 1929-1945

  • 1941-1945: The World War II entangled the United States and Ohio.

The Cold War and the Civil Rights Movement: 1946-1975

  • 1953: Correcting an oversight, Congress passed a resolution officially recognizing Ohio Statehood and declaring Ohio's date of entry into the Union as March 1, 1803.
  • 1962: Ohioan John Glenn became the first person from the United States to orbit the earth.

Modern Ohio

  • 1998: Astronaut John Glenn became the oldest man to travel into space.
  • 2001: Terrorist attacks on September 11 in New York City, NY and Washington, D.C., led to a flurry of anti-terrorist activities in Ohio and throughout the nation.