Beaver Wars

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<p>Beginning Starting in 1640, the 1600sIroquois Confederacy, a confederation of five Iroquoian-speaking American Indian tribes, began a campaign referred to as the Beaver Wars during which they fought other American Indian groups, including those in the Ohio Country, for their lands and territories in order to gain access to their fur-bearing game animals, especially the beaver and deer. The Iroquois participated originally became involved in the fur trade principally with Anglo-American settlers in the early 16th century, primarily with Dutch and British merchants, although a few Iroquois also where they traded with the French. The Iroquois gave beaver and other animal hides to European traders pelts in exchange for musketsfirearms, iron tools, blankets, and colorful glass beads, among other objects. Over the course of the more than 200 years of involvement in the fur trade, the Iroquois Confederacy eventually became dependent upon the itemsthey received in exchange for furs. By 1650The metal tools and guns were more efficient than the stone tools and arrows they produced, and as time passed, the Iroquois hunters began to prefer these items and trappers had killed off most depend on them for survival. In turn, Anglo-American settlers began to control the fur trade because they supplied the goods the American Indians so highly valued and relied upon. However, the competitive nature of the furtrade led to much hostility and bloodshed between American Indian tribes. </p><p>By the mid-bearing animals 17th century, the Iroquois depleted beaver populations in their homelandin the St. To satisfy their desire for more European trade items, Lawrence River region and looked to the Iroquois turned toward the rich hunting grounds abundant resources of their neighbors Algonquian-speaking tribes such as the Lenape or Delaware, supported by the French, in the Ohio Country. The Dependence on the fur trade pitted American Indians who lived here were weakened by European diseases that had swept through Indian groups against each other in their villagesstruggle to maintain and acquire new hunting and trapping grounds and compete for relationships with colonies. As a result, killing many of themthe relationships between Native tribes and colonies strengthened, while inter-tribal and inter-colonial relationships suffered. Armed with gunsBetween 1650 and 1700, the Iroquois killed or Confederacy drove out many of the American Indians they found living here. This struggle over Huron, Petun, Erie, and Sisquehannock Tribes who were allied with French fur traders and who had well-established communities and territories in the Ohio Country became known as the Beaver Wars. Between 1650 The Iroquois Confederacy pushed these Tribes west, and 1700destroyed alliances of the Erie, Huron, and Shawnee. The Iroquois Confederacy gained control of the Ohio Country by 1656. </p><p>The Iroquois waged a war did not fight without great losses of exterminationtheir own. They claimed the land for In retaliation, the French invaded Iroquois Confederacyvillages and surrounding lands, but most Iroquois hunters destroying their crops and warriors did not live homes, resulting in many Iroquois starving to death the Ohio Countryfollowing winter. They came primarily to hunt The Beaver Wars ended with the deer Treaty of Grande Paix, or Great Peace, in 1701, between the Iroquois Confederacy, the British, and beaverthe French, returning in which the Iroquois agreed to stop their homes campaign against tribes in the East after a hunting expeditionOhio Country and allow those pushed out to return to their lands. The exception Although the treaty was a written attempt to put an end to this were bloody campaign, conflict continued between the ErieBritish, who lived along French, Dutch, and the south shore of Lake Erie from New York to approximately modern-day ClevelandAmerican Indian tribes over land control for many decades after, Ohioespecially with the French and Indian Wars on the horizon as European powers fight for control over North America and American Indian tribes fight to maintain control of their lands and territories.</p><p>The best historic records of the Beaver Wars come from The Jesuit RelationRelations, a series of letters and accounts written by Jesuit priests who came to North America to try to convert American Indians native peoples to Catholicism. These records include some of the first written references to the American Indians who lived in Ohio before the Beaver Wars: </p><p>&quot;Our Iroquois, have discovered beyond the Cat Nation other and numerous Nations who speak the Algonquian language. There are more than 30 villages whose inhabitants have never had any knowledge of Europeans, they still use only stone hatchets and knives... Our Iroquois carry fire and war thither...&quot;</p> 
==See Also==
<div class="seeAlsoText">
*[[Iroquois Indians]]
*[[Ohio Country]]
*[[Beaver Wars]]
*[[Fur Trade]]
*[[American Beaver]]