Difference between revisions of "Shawnee Indians"

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| caption= Shawnee with spear. The Shawnee were in Ohio in the 1600s. They were fierce warriors, fighting with the French until the French trading posts turned British. They fought with the British against the Americans during the American Revolution. Tecumseh -- a leader of an Ohio band of the Shawnee who organized a pan-tribal resistance movement against the Treaty of Fort Wayne --  tried to reunite Ohio-based American Indian peoples, but was defeated by General Anthony Wayne in the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. In 1817, under the treaty of Fort Meigs, Ohio Shawnee -- joined by some Seneca -- were sent to live on three reservations in Northwest Ohio. Between 1831 and 1833, following the defeat of the Tecumseh resistance movement, Ohio-based Shawnee continued to organize to resist removal from their lands by the U.S. government. By the mid-1830s, via the U.S. Government's policy of forced removal of American Indians West of the Mississippi, most Shawnee were relocated to reservations in Oklahoma and Kansas.  
 
| caption= Shawnee with spear. The Shawnee were in Ohio in the 1600s. They were fierce warriors, fighting with the French until the French trading posts turned British. They fought with the British against the Americans during the American Revolution. Tecumseh -- a leader of an Ohio band of the Shawnee who organized a pan-tribal resistance movement against the Treaty of Fort Wayne --  tried to reunite Ohio-based American Indian peoples, but was defeated by General Anthony Wayne in the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. In 1817, under the treaty of Fort Meigs, Ohio Shawnee -- joined by some Seneca -- were sent to live on three reservations in Northwest Ohio. Between 1831 and 1833, following the defeat of the Tecumseh resistance movement, Ohio-based Shawnee continued to organize to resist removal from their lands by the U.S. government. By the mid-1830s, via the U.S. Government's policy of forced removal of American Indians West of the Mississippi, most Shawnee were relocated to reservations in Oklahoma and Kansas.  
 
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<p>The Shawnee were living in the Ohio Valley as early as the late 1600s. The Iroquois -- also in the area during this time -- were unwilling to share these rich hunting grounds and drove the Shawnees away. Some went to Illinois; others went to Pennsylvania, Maryland or Georgia. As the power of the Iroquois weakened, members of the Shawnee nation moved back into Ohio from the south and the east. They settled in the lower Scioto River valley. </p>  
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<p>The Shawnees spoke an Algonquian language, and so they are related to the Lenape (Delaware) people, the Miami, and the Ottawa -- all fellow speakers of Algonquian languages. The Shawnees had a special friendship with the Wyandots. They referred to the Wyandots as their “uncles.</p>  
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<p>Today, the Shawnee are comprised of three federally recognized American Indian tribes—the Absentee Shawnee Tribe, located near Shawnee, Oklahoma; Eastern Shawnee Tribe, located near Wyandotte, Oklahoma; and the Shawnee Tribe, located in Miami, Oklahoma.
<p>The Shawnee were allies of the French until British traders moved into the Ohio Country circa 1740. The French pushed the British out of Ohio and the Shawnees became allies of the French again until the British victory in the French and Indian War. As French trading posts turned into British forts, Ohio American Indian peoples, including the Shawnees, fought the British and their colonists. A Shawnee leader named Cornstalk led the Shawnees against British colonists during Lord Dunmore's War in 1774. In the aftermath of the war, Virginia's Royal Governor Lord Dunsmore signed agreements (1774's Treaty of Camp Charlotte) with the Iroquouis which ceded the "hunting ground" across the Ohio River -- including today's Kentucky and West Virginia -- to the British. Although these agreements were made with the Iroquois, the Shawnee were also held party to the treaty.During the American Revolution, the Shawnees fought alongside the British against the Americans. The Shawnees believed that Britain would prevent the colonists from encroaching further upon Shawnee land. After the war the Shawnee continued to resist Anglo-American settlement onto Shawnee land.</p>    
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<p>The Shawnee were active in the Northwest Indian War of the 1790s, and allied with the Miami. General Anthony Wayne defeated the Shawnees and other American Indian peoples living in Ohio at the Battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794. The Shawnees were forced to surrender most of their lands in Ohio with the signing of the Treaty of Greenville.</p>  
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<p>Throughout their history, the Ohio River Valley was the Shawnee’s homeland where rich woods and prairies provided ideal hunting grounds and locations for villages. Some scholars believe the Shawnee to be descendants of the ancient Fort Ancient people, a cultural group living in southwest Ohio during the Late Prehistoric Period (ca. 900-1600 CE). Although the heartland of the Shawnee people appears to have been present-day southern Ohio, Kentucky, and West Virginia, groups of Shawnee were spread across the eastern United States, living in Alabama, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, North and South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia. The Shawnee language belongs to the Algonquian language family, along with other Ohio tribes like the Lenape (Delaware), Myaamia (Miami), and Ojibwe. The Shawnee were a nomadic people, following animal populations throughout the winter months and establishing more permanent villages in the summers, where women gathered and tended to crops, while men hunted and served as warriors. Villages consisted of Wigiiwa, or wigwams, wooden lodges constructed of bundles of saplings covered with tree bark.</p>
<p> Some Shawnee, however, hoped to reclaim their Ohio lands. Chief amongst them was Tecumseh -- a veteran of the Battle of Fallen Timbers -- who hoped to unite together all American Indian peoples west of the Appalachian Mountains against the United States. Angered by the Treaty of Ft. Wayne, which gave away much of the Potawatomi and Miami strongholds in the western Ohio territory (near present-day Vincennes, Indiana), Tecumseh attempted to unite American Indian peoples with ties to Ohio Territory lands in resistance to Anglo-American settler encroachment. Due to the advanced technology of the whites and the Native American's failure to put aside their traditional differences, General William Henry Harrison defeated the Shawnees and their allies at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. The Treaty of Ft. Meigs (1817) effectively ceded all Shawnee lands to the U.S. government, and placed the Shawnee on three reservations in present-day Ohio: one near Wapakaneta (Wapaughkoneta); one in Hog Creek (near Lima); and one in Lewistown. These reservations were shared with the Seneca. </p>
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<p>Many of the Shawnee moved into the Indiana Territory -- one group relocated to Missouri, then to Texas, before being forced into the Neosho River Reservation in Kansas under the Treaty of St. Louis (1825). This reservation was shared with the Ohio Seneca and Ohio Cayuga. These groups were later forced into Oklahoma under the Indian Removal policies of the mid-19th century. In 1833, Shawnee leader Black Bob lead a resistance movement based in Olathe, Kansas, to which many Ohio Shawnee defected Other Shawnees, like Black Hoof -- leader of a popular Shawnee resistance movement on Treaty of Fort Meigs-appointed lands in Northwest Ohio -- adopted white customs, in the hope that assimilationist efforts would protect the Shawnee rights to their Ohio lands.</p> 
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<p>When Europeans came to the Ohio Country in the mid-1600s, the Shawnee’s way of life was disrupted by encroaching settlers, and they were often forced to leave their lands in search of unoccupied territory. Shawnee warriors fought in land skirmishes, particularly with the Kentucky militia, who destroyed their villages and crops. Shawnee warriors also sent out raiding parties to destroy colonial settlements, hoping to drive settlers off their land.</p>
<p>Between 1831 and 1833, the United States forced the Shawnee to give up their land claims in Ohio. The Lewiston Shawnee band migrated directly to Oklahoma; and, shortly thereafter, the Wapakoneta and Hog Creek groups moved to the Shawnee Reservations in Kansas. After the Civil War, the Shawnee, like most of American Indians, were expelled from Kansas and sent to the Indian Territory, in present-day Oklahoma. </p> 
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<p>The Shawnee divided themselves into different clans. The principal leader of the Shawnees could only come from one clan. The name of this clan was “Chillicothe.” When a village was called Chillicothe, it meant that it was home to the principal chief, the “capital city” of the Shawnees. Chillicothe was also the name of Ohio's first state capital.</p>
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<p>Once the fur trade was well under way, American Indian groups competed against one another for hunting grounds in order to secure enough furs to develop strong relationships with French and British fur traders, the Shawnee being no exception. Starting in 1640, the Iroquois Confederacy, a confederation of five Iroquoian-speaking American Indian tribes, began a campaign referred to as the Beaver Wars during which they fought other American Indian groups, including those in the Ohio Country, in order to gain new access to fur-bearing game animals, especially beaver and deer. By the end of the 17th century, the Iroquois, who primarily traded with the British, drove the Shawnee, and other tribes with strong ties to French traders, out of the Ohio River Valley, who then settled in Georgia, Virginia, and Pennsylvania.</p>
<p>Following the forced removal of Shawnees from Ohio, the three federally-recognized Shawnee tribes (Absentee Shawnee Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, the Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma, and the Shawnee Tribe) are now headquartered in Oklahoma.</p>
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<p>The Shawnee, and other tribes with claims to Ohio lands, could return in 1701 when the Treaty of Grande Paix ended the Iroquois’ campaign in the Ohio Country, but American Indians continued to struggle with other tribes against the colonies over land disputes. Throughout the 18th century, the Shawnee joined various American Indian alliances in attempts to defend their territories in Ohio and Kentucky. During the French and Indian War (1754-1763), the Shawnee supported the French, but the overwhelming British victory resulted in a loosely united American Indian rebellion, led by Pontiac, Chief of the Ottawa Tribe, which initiated a series of attacks referred to as Pontiac’s War or Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763-1764). Iroquois leaders relinquished American Indian rights to land south of the Ohio River by signing the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1768) without consulting other tribes living in the Ohio Country, and settlers immediately moved into the area. The Shawnee and other tribes tried to push British colonists west of the Appalachian Mountains, which led to a group of British colonists killing eleven Seneca-Cayuga. Chief Cornstalk of the Shawnee encouraged conciliation rather than retribution, but a later Seneca-Cayuga attack resulted in British retaliation and the destruction of several Shawnee villages in the Ohio Country. To avoid further bloodshed, some Shawnee agreed to the British’s terms and some also agreed to the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1784), which ceded their rights to land east and south of the Ohio River. This was the first time American Indians who lived in Ohio agreed to relinquish some of their land.</p>
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<p>The Shawnee continued to fight for their land by combating encroaching settlers, and joined an American Indian Alliance led by Little Turtle, Chief of the Myaamia Tribe, along with the help of Blue Jacket of the Shawnee, as well as warriors from the Lenape, Wyandotte, Ottawa, and Ojibwa tribes. Although the alliance aimed to thwart settlers’ attempts to take native lands by force, the Alliance was in no way a united body. Members of the Alliance struggled to abandon long-lasting conflict between tribes, which in some ways prevented the Alliance from campaigning as a seamless military and political entity. At the Battle of the Wabash (1792), however, the Alliance forces launched an exceptionally well-coordinated attack on the U.S. Army led by General Arthur St. Clair and thoroughly routed the much larger force.</p>
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<p>More commonly, individual tribes had their own respective interests to gain or lose in their relations with the Americans, which often interfered with the action that would best support the Alliance’s goals. The complexity of the relations within the Alliance further exemplifies the unique ideologies and priorities of each tribe and their respective culture.</p>
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<p>Fighting culminated in 1794 when the Alliance was defeated by General “Mad” Anthony Wayne at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, resulting in, after months of negotiation, representatives from the Shawnee and ten other tribes signing the Treaty of Greenville. Championed as a treaty of friendship between Anglo-American settlers and American Indian tribes, the treaty forced tribal leaders to relinquish much of their land to Anglo-Americans. However, the treaty did not subdue tension between American Indians and settlers, and tribal leaders continued to fight to regain their lost land. Bloodshed dominated the region for the next twenty years as settlers and American Indians struggled for control. In the early 19th century, thousands of American Indian peoples from the Ohio Country and the Great Lakes region joined Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa at Prophetstown, Indiana, where they were building a new Indian Alliance as a united force to stop the sale of Indian land.</p>
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<p>Tecumseh attempted to unite American Indian peoples with ties to Ohio Territory lands in resistance to Anglo-American settler encroachment. Due to the advanced technology of the whites, and the American Indians’ failure to put aside their traditional differences, General William Henry Harrison defeated the Shawnees and their allies at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh’s death at the Battle of Thames in 1813 marked the end of any united American Indian front. The Treaty of Ft. Meigs (1817) effectively ceded all Shawnee lands to the federal government, and placed the Shawnee on three reservations in present-day Ohio: Hog Creek, Lewistown, and near Wapakaneta (Wapaughkoneta). These reservations were shared with their Seneca neighbors.</p>
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<p>On May 28, 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed into law the Indian Removal Act which forced American Indian tribes to migrate west of the Mississippi River so that the United States could utilize the land occupied by reservations. In that same year, the Shawnee living on the Wapakoneta and Hog Creek reservations were forcibly moved to Kansas, and in 1845 a group of these Shawnee migrated to Oklahoma, and are now the Absentee Shawnee Tribe. The remaining Shawnee in Kansas were forced to leave Kansas in 1869, forced to live on the Cherokee reservation in Oklahoma, and required to become citizens of the Cherokee Nation, commonly referred to as the Loyal Shawnee or Cherokee Shawnee. However, they maintained their independent identities and cultures, and in 2000, efforts that began in the 1980s finally gave way to the Loyal Shawnee becoming a sovereign nation, and today are called the Shawnee Tribe. In 1831, the Lewistown Shawnee moved directly to Oklahoma and became the Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma.</p>
  
  

Revision as of 12:05, 23 April 2019

Shawnee Tribe.jpg
Shawnee with spear. The Shawnee were in Ohio in the 1600s. They were fierce warriors, fighting with the French until the French trading posts turned British. They fought with the British against the Americans during the American Revolution. Tecumseh -- a leader of an Ohio band of the Shawnee who organized a pan-tribal resistance movement against the Treaty of Fort Wayne -- tried to reunite Ohio-based American Indian peoples, but was defeated by General Anthony Wayne in the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. In 1817, under the treaty of Fort Meigs, Ohio Shawnee -- joined by some Seneca -- were sent to live on three reservations in Northwest Ohio. Between 1831 and 1833, following the defeat of the Tecumseh resistance movement, Ohio-based Shawnee continued to organize to resist removal from their lands by the U.S. government. By the mid-1830s, via the U.S. Government's policy of forced removal of American Indians West of the Mississippi, most Shawnee were relocated to reservations in Oklahoma and Kansas.

Today, the Shawnee are comprised of three federally recognized American Indian tribes—the Absentee Shawnee Tribe, located near Shawnee, Oklahoma; Eastern Shawnee Tribe, located near Wyandotte, Oklahoma; and the Shawnee Tribe, located in Miami, Oklahoma. <p>Throughout their history, the Ohio River Valley was the Shawnee’s homeland where rich woods and prairies provided ideal hunting grounds and locations for villages. Some scholars believe the Shawnee to be descendants of the ancient Fort Ancient people, a cultural group living in southwest Ohio during the Late Prehistoric Period (ca. 900-1600 CE). Although the heartland of the Shawnee people appears to have been present-day southern Ohio, Kentucky, and West Virginia, groups of Shawnee were spread across the eastern United States, living in Alabama, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Michigan, North and South Carolina, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia. The Shawnee language belongs to the Algonquian language family, along with other Ohio tribes like the Lenape (Delaware), Myaamia (Miami), and Ojibwe. The Shawnee were a nomadic people, following animal populations throughout the winter months and establishing more permanent villages in the summers, where women gathered and tended to crops, while men hunted and served as warriors. Villages consisted of Wigiiwa, or wigwams, wooden lodges constructed of bundles of saplings covered with tree bark.

When Europeans came to the Ohio Country in the mid-1600s, the Shawnee’s way of life was disrupted by encroaching settlers, and they were often forced to leave their lands in search of unoccupied territory. Shawnee warriors fought in land skirmishes, particularly with the Kentucky militia, who destroyed their villages and crops. Shawnee warriors also sent out raiding parties to destroy colonial settlements, hoping to drive settlers off their land.

Once the fur trade was well under way, American Indian groups competed against one another for hunting grounds in order to secure enough furs to develop strong relationships with French and British fur traders, the Shawnee being no exception. Starting in 1640, the Iroquois Confederacy, a confederation of five Iroquoian-speaking American Indian tribes, began a campaign referred to as the Beaver Wars during which they fought other American Indian groups, including those in the Ohio Country, in order to gain new access to fur-bearing game animals, especially beaver and deer. By the end of the 17th century, the Iroquois, who primarily traded with the British, drove the Shawnee, and other tribes with strong ties to French traders, out of the Ohio River Valley, who then settled in Georgia, Virginia, and Pennsylvania.

The Shawnee, and other tribes with claims to Ohio lands, could return in 1701 when the Treaty of Grande Paix ended the Iroquois’ campaign in the Ohio Country, but American Indians continued to struggle with other tribes against the colonies over land disputes. Throughout the 18th century, the Shawnee joined various American Indian alliances in attempts to defend their territories in Ohio and Kentucky. During the French and Indian War (1754-1763), the Shawnee supported the French, but the overwhelming British victory resulted in a loosely united American Indian rebellion, led by Pontiac, Chief of the Ottawa Tribe, which initiated a series of attacks referred to as Pontiac’s War or Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763-1764). Iroquois leaders relinquished American Indian rights to land south of the Ohio River by signing the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1768) without consulting other tribes living in the Ohio Country, and settlers immediately moved into the area. The Shawnee and other tribes tried to push British colonists west of the Appalachian Mountains, which led to a group of British colonists killing eleven Seneca-Cayuga. Chief Cornstalk of the Shawnee encouraged conciliation rather than retribution, but a later Seneca-Cayuga attack resulted in British retaliation and the destruction of several Shawnee villages in the Ohio Country. To avoid further bloodshed, some Shawnee agreed to the British’s terms and some also agreed to the Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1784), which ceded their rights to land east and south of the Ohio River. This was the first time American Indians who lived in Ohio agreed to relinquish some of their land.

The Shawnee continued to fight for their land by combating encroaching settlers, and joined an American Indian Alliance led by Little Turtle, Chief of the Myaamia Tribe, along with the help of Blue Jacket of the Shawnee, as well as warriors from the Lenape, Wyandotte, Ottawa, and Ojibwa tribes. Although the alliance aimed to thwart settlers’ attempts to take native lands by force, the Alliance was in no way a united body. Members of the Alliance struggled to abandon long-lasting conflict between tribes, which in some ways prevented the Alliance from campaigning as a seamless military and political entity. At the Battle of the Wabash (1792), however, the Alliance forces launched an exceptionally well-coordinated attack on the U.S. Army led by General Arthur St. Clair and thoroughly routed the much larger force.

More commonly, individual tribes had their own respective interests to gain or lose in their relations with the Americans, which often interfered with the action that would best support the Alliance’s goals. The complexity of the relations within the Alliance further exemplifies the unique ideologies and priorities of each tribe and their respective culture.

Fighting culminated in 1794 when the Alliance was defeated by General “Mad” Anthony Wayne at the Battle of Fallen Timbers, resulting in, after months of negotiation, representatives from the Shawnee and ten other tribes signing the Treaty of Greenville. Championed as a treaty of friendship between Anglo-American settlers and American Indian tribes, the treaty forced tribal leaders to relinquish much of their land to Anglo-Americans. However, the treaty did not subdue tension between American Indians and settlers, and tribal leaders continued to fight to regain their lost land. Bloodshed dominated the region for the next twenty years as settlers and American Indians struggled for control. In the early 19th century, thousands of American Indian peoples from the Ohio Country and the Great Lakes region joined Tecumseh and his brother Tenskwatawa at Prophetstown, Indiana, where they were building a new Indian Alliance as a united force to stop the sale of Indian land.

Tecumseh attempted to unite American Indian peoples with ties to Ohio Territory lands in resistance to Anglo-American settler encroachment. Due to the advanced technology of the whites, and the American Indians’ failure to put aside their traditional differences, General William Henry Harrison defeated the Shawnees and their allies at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh’s death at the Battle of Thames in 1813 marked the end of any united American Indian front. The Treaty of Ft. Meigs (1817) effectively ceded all Shawnee lands to the federal government, and placed the Shawnee on three reservations in present-day Ohio: Hog Creek, Lewistown, and near Wapakaneta (Wapaughkoneta). These reservations were shared with their Seneca neighbors.

On May 28, 1830, President Andrew Jackson signed into law the Indian Removal Act which forced American Indian tribes to migrate west of the Mississippi River so that the United States could utilize the land occupied by reservations. In that same year, the Shawnee living on the Wapakoneta and Hog Creek reservations were forcibly moved to Kansas, and in 1845 a group of these Shawnee migrated to Oklahoma, and are now the Absentee Shawnee Tribe. The remaining Shawnee in Kansas were forced to leave Kansas in 1869, forced to live on the Cherokee reservation in Oklahoma, and required to become citizens of the Cherokee Nation, commonly referred to as the Loyal Shawnee or Cherokee Shawnee. However, they maintained their independent identities and cultures, and in 2000, efforts that began in the 1980s finally gave way to the Loyal Shawnee becoming a sovereign nation, and today are called the Shawnee Tribe. In 1831, the Lewistown Shawnee moved directly to Oklahoma and became the Eastern Shawnee Tribe of Oklahoma.



See Also

References

  1. Hurt, R. Douglas. The Ohio Frontier: Crucible of the Old Northwest, 1720-1830. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 1996.