Raymond S. Baby (pronounced "Bobby") was born in Cleveland, Ohio in 1917. He attended the Western Reserve University and earned a B.S. degree in anatomy. He pursued graduate studies at the University of New Mexico, but did not earn a postgraduate degree.
Baby was hired by the Ohio History Connection in 1946 to conduct an archaeological survey of the Delaware Reservoir area. In 1947, he became a full-time assistant in archaeology and in the following year he replaced Richard Morgan as curator of archaeology. During the 1960s and 70s, Baby taught classes in Ohio archaeology at The Ohio State University. Many of his students assisted in excavations and some went on to careers in archaeology.
Baby conducted numerous excavations of Adena and Hopewell mounds, including the Ater Mound, Cowan Creek Mound, Niles-Wolford Mound and several mounds in the Alum Creek, Big Darby, and Paint Creek reservoir areas. He directed major excavations at Mound City and Seip Mound. In addition to his mound research, Baby also conducted excavations at the Early Woodland culture Dominion Land Company village site.
Baby's most significant contributions to Ohio archaeology include his collaboration with Olaf Prufer, of Kent State University, on the first major synthesis of the Paleoindians of Ohio and his work with William S. Webb, University of Kentucky, on refining our understanding of the Adena culture. Baby also collaborated with James Brown, Northwestern University, on new interpretations of the Mound City Group.
Baby retired from the Ohio History Connection in 1979 accepting an appointment as curator emeritus. He died in 1982.